Sauropods had soft foot pads to help support their massive weight

A 3D paleoreconstruction of a sauropod dinosaur has revealed that the hind feet had a soft tissue pad beneath the "heel," cushioning the foot to absorb the animals immense weight.

Enlarge / A 3D paleoreconstruction of a sauropod dinosaur has revealed that the hind feet had a soft tissue pad beneath the “heel,” cushioning the foot to absorb the animals immense weight. (credit: Andreas Jannel)

Ask people to think of a dinosaur, and they’ll likely name Tyrannosaurus Rex, the carnivorous antagonist prominently featured in the Jurassic Park and Jurassic World film franchises. But an equally well-known dinosaur clade are the herbivorous sauropods, which include Brachiosaurus, Diplodocus, Apatosaurus, Argentinosaurus, and Brontosaurus. Australian paleontologists have digitally reconstructed these plant-munching giants to glean insight into how their feet managed to support their enormous weight, according to a new paper published in the journal Science Advances.

“We’ve finally confirmed a long-suspected idea and we provide, for the first time, biomechanical evidence that a soft tissue pad—particularly in their back feet—would have played a crucial role in reducing locomotor pressures and bone stresses,” said co-author Andreas Jannel, who worked on the project while completing doctoral studies at the University of Queensland. “It is mind-blowing to imagine that these giant creatures could have been able to support their own weight on land.”

Sauropods (clade name: Sauropoda, or “lizard feet”) had long-necked, long-tailed bodies that made them the lengthiest animals to have roamed the Earth. They had thick and powerful hind legs, club-like feet with five toes, and more slender forearms. It’s rare to find complete Sauropod fossils, and even those that are mostly complete still lack the heads, tail tips, and limbs. Scientists have nonetheless managed to learn a great deal about them, and digital reconstruction is proving to be a valuable new tool in advancing our knowledge even further.

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#biology, #biomechanics, #dinosaurs, #evolution, #paleontology, #sauropods, #science

If T. Rex’s Beady-Eyed Glare Terrifies You, It Should

Top-predator dinosaurs of the Cretaceous may have traded big eyes for a bigger bite

#biology, #dinosaurs, #evolution

Little Pterosaur Could Have ‘Pole-Vaulted’ into Flight from the Water

New fossil analysis offers the first physical evidence of this launch strategy

#advances, #biology, #dinosaurs, #paleontology

Splitting T. Rex Into 3 Species Becomes a Dinosaur Royal Rumble

A team of researchers published a rebuttal to an argument advanced by another group earlier in the year. The disagreement over the king of dinosaurs is far from over.

#dinosaurs, #evolutionary-biology-journal, #fossils, #paleontology, #research, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

Feathers May Have Helped Dinosaurs Survive Their First Apocalypse

Geologic evidence for a freezing arctic suggests dinosaurs could have weathered an epoch-ending volcanic winter

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#biology, #dinosaurs, #evolution, #paleontology

Which is worse for the soil—combines or dinosaurs?

Image of a sauropod in a lush environment.

Enlarge / Having this guy stomp through might mean that things would struggle to grow there afterwards. (credit: Roger Harris)

Words I did not expect to read in a scientific paper this week: “The similarity in mass and contact area between modern farm vehicles and sauropods raises the question: What was the mechanical impact of these prehistoric animals on land productivity?” The paper, from Thomas Keller and Dani Or, raises what may be a significant worry: Farm vehicles have grown over the past few decades, to the point where they may be compacting the subsurface soil where roots of crops extend. This poses a risk to agricultural productivity.

The paper then compares that compaction risk to the one posed by the largest animals to ever roam our land: sauropods.

The big crunch

We think of the ground as being solid, but gaps and channels within soil are critical to plant life, since they allow air and water to reach roots. Soil compaction, in its extreme form, gets rid of all these spaces, making the ground much less hospitable for plants. And compaction is hard to reverse; it can take decades of plant and animal activity to break up the compacted soil again and re-establish a healthy ecosystem.

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#agriculture, #biology, #dinosaurs, #paleontology, #sauropods, #science, #soil

Dinosaurs Started Out Hot, Then Some of Them Turned Cold

Scientists directly measured the metabolic rate of extinct animals, which revealed that some giant dinosaurs became coldblooded.

#anatomy-and-physiology, #biology-and-biochemistry, #dinosaurs, #endangered-and-extinct-species, #fossils, #nature-journal, #paleontology, #pterosaurs, #research, #temperature, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

Dinosaur Skeleton Sells for $12.4 Million at Christie’s

The remains of a Deinonychus antirrhopus, the beast that inspired the velociraptor in “Jurassic Park,” are believed to be the first of their kind sold at a public auction.

#auctions, #christies, #deinonychus-antirrhopus, #dinosaurs, #hector, #jurassic-park-movie, #paleontology, #skeletons

Shards of Asteroid That Killed the Dinosaurs May Have Been Found in Fossil Site

In a North Dakota deposit far from the Chicxulub crater in Mexico, remains of the rock from space were preserved within amber, a paleontologist says.

#asteroids, #dinosaurs, #fossils, #meteors-and-meteorites, #north-dakota, #paleontology, #pterosaurs, #research, #yucatan-peninsula-mexico

Big triceratops was healing a hole in its head

Full skeleton of a triceratops.

Enlarge / Meet Big John. (credit: Zoic Limited Liability Company)

It’s difficult to tell which feature of the triceratops is more striking: the two large horns that jut from its forehead or the large frill that extends out from the back of its skull. In the minds of many paleontologists, the two features appear to be related. Scars found in the bones supporting the frill also seem to suggest that the animals engaged in combat with their horns, much like modern animals such as moose—fights that regularly resulted in injuries.

But it’s difficult to rule out alternative explanations for some of the holes found in the fossil remains of frills. Some of the holes could have been a result of decay with age or damage after death. Now, an analysis of a triceratops skeleton known as “Big John” eliminates a couple of possibilities by showing that a hole punched through one of the bones of the frill seems to have started healing before the animal died.

Hole in one

The large frill at the back of a triceratops’ head is made from large, bony plates that are fused with the bones that do the things we normally associate with skulls, like protecting the brain. They were present in early species in this lineage that lacked pronounced horns and so are thought to have originally evolved for display purposes.

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#biology, #dinosaurs, #evolution, #paleontology, #science, #triceratops

‘Big John,’ a High-Profile Triceratops, Locked Horns With Its Own Kind, Study Suggests

A team of Italian scientists describe what they believe is a gaping scar from one of these ancient battles on the neck frill of the Triceratops.

#animal-behavior, #collectors-and-collections, #dinosaurs, #fossils, #museums, #paleontology, #research, #scientific-reports-journal, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

Mystery Solved: Stan, the T. Rex, Went to Abu Dhabi

A Tyrannosaurus rex fossil known as “Stan” that drew a record price at auction in 2020 — $31.8 million — will be part of a new natural history museum in the United Arab Emirates.

#abu-dhabi-united-arab-emirates, #auctions, #christies, #dinosaurs, #fossils, #museums, #paleontology, #saadiyat-island-united-arab-emirates

If Dilophosaurus ran the 100-meter against Usain Bolt, who would win?

University of Toledo physicist Scott Lee came up with the exercise to inspire undergrads in his introductory physics course.

Enlarge / University of Toledo physicist Scott Lee came up with the exercise to inspire undergrads in his introductory physics course. (credit: Aurich Lawson | Getty Images)

The early Jurassic dinosaurs known as Dilophosaurus proved to be scene stealers in the 1993 blockbuster Jurassic Park, taking out a full-grown man who thought they were just cute, harmless critters—right until they disabled him by spitting venom into his eyes. But how would Dilophosaurus fare in a different kind of contest: racing the 100-meter dash against eight-time Olympic gold medalist Usain Bolt? It wouldn’t be much of a fight—Bolt would easily beat the 900-pound beast by a good two seconds.

That’s the conclusion of physicist Scott Lee of the University of Toledo, based on a physics exercise he developed for his undergraduate students in introductory physics. Lee has loved dinosaurs ever since he was a kid, when he would hunt for fossils with his family, and he has brought that love into the classroom. “One big issue in physics education is to generate student enthusiasm for the course material,” he said. “These dinosaur problems really spark a lot of interest among the students.” He described his pedagogical process in a new paper published in The Physics Teacher.

Bolt made his mark on history in the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, when he broke his own world record in the 100-meter final, blazing past the competition to win the gold with a time of 9.69 seconds. He was so far ahead of the pack—the silver medalist finished in 9.89 seconds—that Bolt visibly slowed down in celebration right at the finish. Had he kept running at full speed, Bolt would have finished in 9.52 seconds, his coach estimated. This conclusion was borne out by an analysis by physicists at the University of Oslo, whose calculations predicted a finish in about 9.55 seconds.

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#biomechanics, #dinosaurs, #paleontology, #physics, #physics-education, #science, #usain-bolt

They Want to Break T. Rex Into 3 Species. Paleontologists Aren’t Pleased.

The premise, put forth in a new paper, highlights an assortment of tensions in dinosaur paleontology, including how subjective the naming of species can be.

#biodiversity, #dinosaurs, #fossils, #paleontology, #research, #tyrannosaurus-rex, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

‘Frozen in Place’ Fossils Reveal Dinosaur-Killing Asteroid Struck in Spring

Clues to the season of impact lingered in delicate fish fossils

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#dinosaurs, #environment

An asteroid killed dinosaurs in spring—which might explain why mammals survived

An international team of scientists used synchrotron radiation to image and analyze fossilized fish from the Tanis deposit in North Dakota.

Some 66 million years ago, a catastrophic event wiped out three-quarters of all plant and animal species on Earth, most notably taking down the dinosaurs. The puzzle of why so many species perished while others survived has long intrigued scientists.

A new paper published in the journal Nature concludes that one reason for this evolutionary selectivity is the timing of the impact. Based on their analysis of fossilized fish killed immediately after the impact, the authors have determined that the extinction event occurred in the spring—at least in the Northern Hemisphere—interrupting the annual reproductive cycles of many species.

As we’ve reported previously, the most widely accepted explanation for what triggered that catastrophic mass extinction is known as the “Alvarez hypothesis,” after the late physicist Luis Alvarez and his geologist son, Walter. In 1980, they proposed that the extinction event may have been caused by a massive asteroid or comet hitting the Earth.

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#asteroids, #chicxulub, #cretaceous, #dinosaurs, #fossils, #k-pg-mass-extinction, #mesozoic, #science, #stable-carbon-isotopes, #synchrotron-radiation

The Dinosaur Age May Have Ended in Springtime

A new study examining fossils of fish suggests animals were wiped out by a massive meteor at a time when they were just emerging from hibernation and having offspring.

#dinosaurs, #earth, #endangered-and-extinct-species, #fossils, #meteors-and-meteorites, #paleontology, #spring-season

Old friends return to save us from extinction in Jurassic World Dominion trailer

Sam Neill, Laura Dern, and Jeff Goldblum will reprise their 1993 roles in Jurassic World Dominion.

Cloned dinosaurs are roaming freely on the mainland as human beings face possible extinction in the official trailer for Jurassic World Dominion, the sixth installment in the hugely successful franchise. Universal Pictures describes the film as “a bold, timely and breathtaking new adventure that spans the globe,” but what has everybody buzzing is the reappearance of the three stars of the original Jurassic Park.

That’s right, Sam Neill’s Dr. Alan Grant, Laura Dern’s Dr. Ellie Sattler, and Jeff Goldblum’s suave, black-clad Dr. Ian Malcolm will join Jurassic World co-stars Chris Pratt and Bryce Dallas Howard in yet another thrilling battle between man and once-extinct beast. We haven’t seen Neill’s or Dern’s characters since 2001’s Jurassic Park III. Even better, they’re major players in Dominion, not just making brief fan-pleasing cameos.

(Spoilers for prior films in the franchise below.)

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#dinosaurs, #film, #film-trailers, #gaming-culture, #jurassic-park-franchise, #jurassic-world-dominion, #universal-pictures

Dinosaur Prints in Utah Are Feared Damaged by Construction Equipment

Federal work on a new walkway at the site has been halted after paleontology groups raised the alarm about equipment “driven directly over the fossil dinosaur tracks.”

#bureau-of-land-management, #center-for-biological-diversity, #dinosaurs, #moab-utah, #paleontology, #society-of-vertebrate-paleontology

A Naturalist Stumbled on an Ichthyosaur Skeleton, the Largest in U.K. History

The fossilized remains of the marine reptile, often referred to as a “sea dragon” and believed to be 180 million years old, were discovered at a nature reserve.

#conservation-of-resources, #dinosaurs, #england, #fish-and-other-marine-life, #fossils, #great-britain, #museums, #paleontology, #reptiles, #rutland-england, #skeletons, #university-of-leicester, #university-of-manchester, #wildlife-sanctuaries-and-nature-reserves

It’s a Christmas Sweater on a T. Rex: You Sure You Want to Call It Ugly?

The Natural History Museum in London outfitted its animatronic Tyrannosaurus rex in a colorful Christmas sweater.

#dinosaurs, #great-britain, #holidays-and-special-occasions, #instagram-inc, #london-england, #museums, #natural-history-museum-london, #paleontology

This Dinosaur Found in Chile Had a Battle Ax for a Tail

While ankylosaurs are already known for their armor and club tails, this specimen from South America had a unique way of fighting predators.

#chile, #dinosaurs, #fossils, #nature-journal, #paleontology, #research, #tail, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

Flocking Together May Have Helped Dinosaurs Dominate the Earth

A fossil bed in Patagonia provides evidence of complex social structure in dinosaurs as early as 193 million years ago. And scientists say that herding behavior could have been key to the…

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#biology, #dinosaurs

Dinosaurs May Have Been Socializing Nearly 200 Million Years Ago

A trove of fossilized eggs and skeletons in Argentina revealed that some dinosaurs likely traveled in herds and socialized by age.

#animal-behavior, #animals, #argentina, #dinosaurs, #endangered-and-extinct-species, #fossils, #paleontology, #research, #scientific-reports-journal, #south-america

The Triassic’s Fearsome Dinosaur Was a Timid Plant Eater

A new analysis of fossilized footprints corrects what earlier scientists mistook for a very early carnivore in the dinosaur era.

#australia, #brisbane-australia, #dinosaurs, #historical-biology-journal, #paleontology, #research, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

Volcanic Eruptions Helped Dinosaurs Dominate Planet Earth

Massive eruptions transformed the climate in the Triassic era, creating the conditions in which dinosaurs diversified into many more species.

#dinosaurs, #endangered-and-extinct-species, #global-warming, #greenhouse-gas-emissions, #research, #volcanoes, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

Some Dinosaurs May Have Wagged their Tails to Help Them Run

This may be for the same reason humans swing their arms when walking and running.

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#biology, #dinosaurs, #paleontology

Some Dinosaurs May Have Wagged Their Tail to Help Them Run

This may be for the same reason humans swing their arms when walking and running

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#biology, #dinosaurs, #paleontology

Dinosaurs Lived–and Made Little Dinos–in the Arctic

New research shows that the prehistoric giants were even cooler than we thought

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#biology, #dinosaurs

The Rock That Ended the Dinosaurs Was Much More Than a Dino Killer

In seeking the origin story of the Chicxulub impactor, scientists hope to also unlock secrets about the origin of life itself.

#asteroids, #dinosaurs, #endangered-and-extinct-species, #geology, #icarus-journal, #research, #solar-system, #space-and-astronomy

Fossils Seized in Police Raid Demystify a Prehistoric Flying Reptile

Among the 3,000 fossils seized at a Brazilian port in 2013 was an almost complete skeleton from the pterosaur species Tupandactylus navigans, preserved in six limestone slabs.

#brazil, #dinosaurs, #fossils, #paleontology, #plos-one-journal, #pterosaurs, #research, #smuggling

Was The Tyrannosaurus Rex a Picky Eater?

The jaw of the Tyrannosaurus Rex had sensitive nerves that may have allowed it to differentiate between parts of its prey, a new study found.

#dinosaurs, #fossils, #historical-biology-journal, #japan, #jaw-body-part, #montana, #paleontology, #research, #tyrannasaurus-rex

A Mysterious Crater’s Age May Add Clues to the Dinosaur Extinction

Boltysh crater in Ukraine formed around the same time as the Chicxulub event, raising questions about its role in this tumultuous era.

#asteroids, #dinosaurs, #earth, #geology, #research, #science-advances-journal, #ukraine, #your-feed-science

Trace fossils, the most inconspicuous bite-sized window into ancient worlds

Image of a rock with oval outlines embedded in it.

Enlarge / It may not look like much, but you can actually learn a lot from a fossilized leaf that preserves insect damage. (credit: Donovan et. al.)

He knew what it was as soon as he saw it: the signature sign of a bird landing. He’d seen hundreds of such tracks along the Georgia coast. He’d photographed them, measured them, and drawn them. The difference here? This landing track was approximately 105 million years old.

Dr. Anthony Martin, a popular professor at Emory University, recognized that landing track in Australia in the early 2000s when he passed by a fossil slab in a museum. “Because my eyes had been trained for so long from the Georgia coast seeing those kinds of patterns, that’s how I noticed them,” he said. “Because it literally was out of the corner of my eye. I was walking by the slab, I glanced at it, and then these three-toed impressions popped out at me.”

Impressions of toes may seem to be pretty dull compared to a fully reconstructed skeleton. But many of us yearn for a window into ancient worlds, to actually see how long-extinct creatures looked, lived, and behaved. Paleontology lets us crack open that window; using fossilized remains, scientists glean information about growth rates, diet, diseases, and where species roamed. But there’s a lesser-known branch of paleontology that fully opens the window by exploring what the extinct animals actually did.

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#biology, #dinosaurs, #features, #fossils, #giant-sloths, #mammoths, #paleontology, #science

New Dinosaur Species Is Australia’s Largest, Researchers Say

Australotitan cooperensis, a long-necked herbivore from the Cretaceous period, is estimated to have weighed 70 tons, measured two stories tall and extended the length of a basketball court.

#australia, #dinosaurs, #museums, #paleontology, #queensland-australia

How Many Tyrannosaurus Rexes Ever Lived on Earth? Here’s a New Clue.

An estimation of the iconic predator’s total population can teach us things about dinosaurs that fossils cannot.

#dinosaurs, #endangered-and-extinct-species, #north-america, #paleontology, #research, #science-journal, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

How the Largest Animals That Could Ever Fly Supported Giraffe-Like Necks

These pterosaurs had wingspans as long as 33 feet, and scans of fossilized remains reveal a surprise in their anatomy.

#dinosaurs, #fossils, #iscience-journal, #morocco, #neck, #paleontology, #pterosaurs, #research, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

These Rocks Made a 1,000-Mile Trek. Did Dinosaurs Carry Them?

Researchers suggest a collection of prehistoric stones found in Wyoming journeyed from Wisconsin in the bellies of very large beasts.

#dinosaurs, #geology, #paleontology, #research, #rock-and-stone, #terra-nova-journal, #wisconsin, #wyoming, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

Prior to the Chicxulub impact, rainforests looked very different

Image of a tropical forest.

Enlarge (credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Colombia’s rainforest looked very different 66 million years ago. At present, the humid and biodiverse ecosystem is jam-packed with plants and is covered in a thick, light-blocking canopy of leaves and branches. Notably, there are no dinosaurs. But prior to the dinosaurs going away with the Chicxulub impact, signaling the end of the Cretaceous Period, things looked very different. The area’s plant coverage was relatively sparse, and a bevvy of conifers called it home.

Using the fossilized remains of plants, a team of researchers studied the past of the rainforest and how the asteroid gave rise to the rainforests of today. The study, published in Science on April 1, was led by scientists at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in Panama and supported by scientists at the Negaunee Institute for Plant Conservation Science and Action at the Chicago Botanic Garden.

“Forests disappeared because of the ecological catastrophe… and then, the returning vegetation was mostly dominated by flowering plants,” said Mónica Carvalho, first author and joint postdoctoral fellow at STRI and at the Universidad del Rosario in Colombia, in an interview with Ars.

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#asteroid-impact, #biology, #dinosaurs, #ecology, #paleontology, #science

Decolonizing the Hunt for Dinosaurs and Other Fossils

Younger paleontologists are working to overcome some historical legacies of their discipline and change how people learn about natural history.

#colonization, #dinosaurs, #discrimination, #fish-and-other-marine-life, #fossils, #museums, #paleontology, #race-and-ethnicity, #research, #science-and-technology, #tunisia, #your-feed-science

Uprooting Colonialism From the Fossil-Finding Field

Younger paleontologists are working to overcome some historical legacies of their discipline and change how people learn about natural history.

#colonization, #dinosaurs, #discrimination, #fish-and-other-marine-life, #fossils, #museums, #paleontology, #race-and-ethnicity, #research, #science-and-technology, #tunisia, #your-feed-science

The Outsized Influence of Teen T. Rex and Other Young Dinosaurs

A deep dive into dinosaur data suggests that teenage T. rexes and other juvenile carnivores shaped their ecosystems.

#children-and-childhood, #dinosaurs, #endangered-and-extinct-species, #paleontology, #research, #science-journal, #teenagers-and-adolescence, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science, #youth

Astronomers: A comet fragment, not an asteroid, killed off the dinosaurs

Harvard astronomers have a new theory about the origin of the comet that led to the extinction of the dinosaurs.

Some 66 million years ago, a catastrophic event occurred that wiped out three-quarters of all plant and animal species on Earth, most notably taking down the dinosaurs. An errant asteroid from the asteroid belt has been deemed the most likely culprit. However, in a new paper published in Scientific Reports, Harvard astronomers offer an alternative: a special kind of comet—originating from a field of debris at the edge of our solar system known as the Oort cloud—that was thrown off course by Jupiter’s gravity toward the Sun. The Sun’s powerful tidal forces then ripped pieces off the comet, and one of the larger fragments of this “cometary shrapnel” eventually collided with Earth.

The most widely accepted explanation for what triggered that catastrophic mass extinction is known as the “Alvarez hypothesis,” after the late physicist Luis Alvarez and his geologist son, Walter. In 1980, they proposed that the extinction event may have been caused by a massive asteroid or comet hitting the Earth. They based this conclusion on their analysis of sedimentary layers at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (the K-Pg boundary, formerly known as the K-T boundary) found all over the world, which included unusually high concentrations of iridium—a metal more commonly found in asteroids than on Earth. (That same year, Dutch geophysicist Jan Smit independently arrived at a similar conclusion.)

Since then, scientists have identified a likely impact site: a large crater in Chicxulub, Mexico, in the Yucatan Peninsula, first discovered by geophysicists in the late 1970s. The impactor that created it was sufficiently large (between 11 and 81 kilometers, or 7 to 50 miles) to melt, shock, and eject granite from deep inside the Earth, probably causing a megatsunami and ejecting vaporized rock and sulfates into the atmosphere. This in turn had a devastating effect on global climate, leading to mass extinction.

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#astronomy, #astrophysics, #chicxulub, #comets, #cretaceous, #dinosaurs, #physics, #science

Where Did the Dinosaur-Killing Impactor Come From?

A new study blames a comet fragment for the death of the dinosaurs 66 million years ago. But most experts maintain that an asteroid caused this cataclysmic event.

#asteroids, #comets, #dinosaurs, #earth, #research, #scientific-reports-journal, #space-and-astronomy, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science, #yucatan-peninsula-mexico

Was Spinosaurus an Underwater Killer or a Giant Wading Bird?

A new study challenges the hypothesis that spinosaurus pursued its prey in the currents of prehistoric rivers.

#dinosaurs, #fish-and-other-marine-life, #fossils, #north-africa, #palaeontologia-electronica, #paleontology, #research, #your-feed-science

Finally in 3-D: A Dinosaur’s All-Purpose Orifice

This cloaca is more than 100 million years old, and it did a lot of work for this extinct species.

#anatomy-and-physiology, #anus, #crocodiles, #current-biology-journal, #dinosaurs, #feces, #fossils, #paleontology, #reproduction-biological, #research

Another Thing a Triceratops Shares With an Elephant

It’s not just large size and something pointy near their faces.

#biology-letters-journal, #dinosaurs, #flowers-and-plants, #paleontology, #research, #seeds, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

This Unusual Bird Superpower Goes Back to the Dinosaur Extinction

Kiwis, ibises and sandpipers share this sensory power with birds that lived millions of years ago.

#birds, #dinosaurs, #fossils, #paleontology, #proceedings-of-the-royal-society-b-journal, #research, #senses-and-sensation, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

We’ve Rarely Seen a Dinosaur Brain Like This Before

While later dinosaurs in this lineage were giant herbivores with tiny brains, this small species packed a lot more power in its skull.

#animal-behavior, #brain, #brazil, #dinosaurs, #evolution-biology, #fossils, #journal-of-anatomy, #paleontology, #research, #skull-body-part, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

These Winged Dinosaurs Hurtled Through the Trees Like Haywire Hang Gliders

To call it flying would be generous.

#birds, #dinosaurs, #endangered-and-extinct-species, #fossils, #iscience-journal, #paleontology, #pterosaurs, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science