Did a large impact remix the Moon’s interior?

Image of a red and green sphere with a large blue oval in the center.

Enlarge / The blue area is the basin formed by the largest impact on the Moon. Additional craters have formed by subsequent impacts. (credit: NASA/GSFC/University of Arizona)

As the Moon coalesced from the debris of an impact early in the Solar System’s history, the steady stream of orbital impacts is thought to have formed a magma ocean, leaving the body liquid. That should have allowed its components to mix evenly, creating a roughly uniform body. But with the onset of space exploration, we were finally able to get our first good look at the far side of the Moon.

It turned out to look quite different from the side we were familiar with, with very little in the way of the dark regions, called mare, that dominate the side facing Earth. These differences are also reflected in the chemical composition of the rocks on the different sides. If the whole Moon was once a well-mixed blob of magma, how did it end up with such a major difference between two of its faces? A new study links this difference to the Moon’s largest impact crater.

A big crash

The South Pole-Aitken Basin is one of the largest impact craters in the Solar System, but again, we didn’t realize it was there until after we put a craft in orbit around the Moon. All we can see from Earth are some of the ridges that are part of the outer crater wall. Most of the 2,500 kilometers of the crater itself extend into the far side of the Moon.

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#astronomy, #geology, #impact-crater, #moon, #planetary-science, #science

Cliff Collapses on Boaters in Brazil, Killing 10

The tragedy in Minas Gerais state gripped the nation because it was captured on videos that showed an immense slab of rock smashing into pleasure boats.

#boats-and-boating, #brazil, #deaths-fatalities, #geology, #minas-gerais-brazil

Chinese Rover Finds Moon Cube Is Just Rabbit-Like Rock

A blurry image that China’s space program had called the “mystery hut” was a result of camera angle, light and shadow.

#china, #geology, #moon, #space-and-astronomy

New Technology Monitors Collapsing Glaciers

Deep vibrations called infrasound can provide an early warning of ice avalanches’ speed and trajectory

— Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

#advances, #environment, #geology

Virtual 3D models of ammonite fossils show their muscles for first time

Stylized image of nautilus-style creature.

Enlarge (credit: Lesley Cherns et al.)

Researchers created a highly detailed 3D model of a 365-million-year-old ammonite fossil from the Jurassic period by combining advanced imaging techniques, revealing internal muscles that have never been previously observed, according to a paper published last month in the journal Geology. Another paper published last month in the journal Papers in Paleontology reported on the creation of 3D virtual models of the armored plates from fossilized skeletons of two new species of ancient worms, dating from 400 million years ago.

The ammonite fossil used in the Geology study was discovered in 1998 at the Claydon Pike pit site in Gloucestershire, England, which mostly comprises poorly cemented sands, sandstone, and limestone. Plenty of fragmented mollusk shells are scattered throughout the site, but this particular specimen was remarkably intact, showing no signs of prolonged exposure via scavenging, shell encrustation, or of being exhumed from elsewhere and redeposited. The fossil is currently housed at the National Museum Wales, Cardiff.

“When I found the fossil, I immediately knew it was something special,” said co-author Neville Hollingworth, public engagement manager at the Science and Technology Facilities Council. “The shell split in two and the body of the fossil fell out revealing what looked like soft tissues. It is wonderful to finally know what these are through the use of state-of-the-art imaging techniques.”

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#12-days-of-christmas, #3d-virtual-models, #biology, #fossils, #geology, #micro-ct-imaging, #neutron-imaging, #paleobiology, #paleontology, #science

Noblewoman’s tomb reveals new secrets of ancient Rome’s highly durable concrete

The Tomb of Caecilia Metella is a mausoleum located just outside Rome at the three mile marker of the Via Appia.

Enlarge / The Tomb of Caecilia Metella is a mausoleum located just outside Rome at the three mile marker of the Via Appia. (credit: ivioandronico2013/CC BY-SA 4.0)

Among the many popular tourist sites in Rome is an impressive 2000-year-old mausoleum along the Via Appia known as the Tomb of Caecilia Metella, a noblewoman who lived in the first century CE. Lord Byron was among those who marveled at the structure, even referencing it in his epic poem Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage  (1812-1818). Now scientists have analyzed samples of the ancient concrete used to build the tomb, describing their findings in a paper published in October in the Journal of the American Ceramic Society.

“The construction of this very innovative and robust monument and landmark on the Via Appia Antica indicates that [Caecilia Metella] was held in high respect,” said co-author Marie Jackson, a geophysicist at the University of Utah.  “And the concrete fabric 2,050 years later reflects a strong and resilient presence.”

Like today’s Portland cement (a basic ingredient of modern concrete), ancient Roman concrete was basically a mix of a semi-liquid mortar and aggregate. Portland cement is typically made by heating limestone and clay (as well as sandstone, ash, chalk, and iron) in a kiln. The resulting clinker is then ground into a fine powder, with just a touch of added gypsum—the better to achieve a smooth, flat surface. But the aggregate used to make Roman concrete was made up fist-size pieces of stone or bricks

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#12-days-of-christmas, #ancient-rome, #archaeology, #biz-it, #gaming-culture, #geology, #geophysics, #history, #materials-science, #roman-concrete, #science

Rainy years can’t make up for California’s groundwater use

Image of a canal running through very dry terrain.

Enlarge / When the California aqueducts can’t carry enough water, many areas of the state turn to groundwater. (credit: Steve Proehl)

Over a third of American vegetables are grown in California, largely in the state’s Central Valley. The region also produces two-thirds of the nation’s fruits and nuts. These crops—and the many Americans who produce and consume them—are heavily reliant on California’s water supply. But, given recurrent and severe droughts, the state’s groundwater supply has been strained.

When surface water supplies run low, most arid regions worldwide turn instead to their groundwater. But past mismanagement of the groundwater in California has caused parts of the state to sink as much as 30 feet and has also increased the frequency of earthquakes along the San Andreas fault.

Just as importantly, the state’s groundwater storage may have been depleted to a point where recovery may take many decades. But, given that this supply is—as its name suggests—in the ground, changes to groundwater aren’t the easiest to measure; the available approaches each have advantages and disadvantages. A new study uses a combination of four of the leading methods to show that California’s aquifers haven’t been recovering from overdrafts during the droughts over the last two decades—and they’re unlikely to do so unless policymakers put more limits in place soon.

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#geology, #ground-water, #science, #water

A sublime landscape: New model explains Pluto’s lumpy plains

Greyscale image of topographic features.

Enlarge / The polygons of Sputnik Planitium. (credit: NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI)

Expectations for active geology on Pluto were pretty low prior to the arrival of the New Horizons probe. But the photos that came back from the dwarf planet revealed a world of mountains, ridges, and… strange lumpy things that don’t have an obvious Earthly analog. One of the more prominent oddities was the plain of Sputnik Planitia, filled with nitrogen ice that was divided into polygonal shapes separated by gullies that were tens of meters deep.

Scientists quickly came up with a partial explanation for these structures: convection, where heat differences cause deeper, warmer nitrogen ices to bubble through the soft material toward the surface. The problem is that the planet has no obvious sources of heat deep inside. Now, however, a group of European researchers is suggesting that the convection could be driven by surface cooling, rather than heat from the planet’s interior. The secret is the sublimation of nitrogen ices directly into vapors.

Lacking heat

Explaining the formations on small, icy bodies like Pluto is difficult because scientists expect that they lack the heat sources that drive plate tectonics, like those on Earth. These icy bodies are small enough that any heat generated by the collisions that built them, and the dwarf planet, dissipated long ago. And they don’t have enough metallic materials for radioisotopes to provide ongoing heat generation. The few exceptions to this, like Europa and Enceladus, are heated by gravitational interactions with the giant planets they orbit, but that’s not an option for Pluto, either.

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#chemistry, #geology, #planetary-science, #science

Being LGBT in Geoscience Is like Being Invisible

For a field of science long recognizing the need for diversity, geoscience has moved at a glacial pace to achieve it

— Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

#environment, #geology

Dozens of Earthquakes Strike Off Oregon Coast, but Experts Say Not to Worry

At least 66 earthquakes rattled the Blanco Fracture Zone from Tuesday into Wednesday, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.

#blanco-fracture-zone, #don-blakeman, #douglas-toomey, #earth, #earthquakes, #geology, #hough-susan, #national-earthquake-information-center, #national-weather-service, #oregon, #pacific-northwestern-states-us, #san-andreas-fault-calif, #tidal-waves-and-tsunamis, #united-states-geological-survey

Scientists use seismic noise to image first hundred meters of Mars

InSight places a wind shield over its seismometer.

Enlarge / InSight places a wind shield over its seismometer. (credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

NASA’s InSight lander installed a seismograph on Mars, and the marsquakes it detected have helped us map the planet’s interior. This data provides the big picture of Mars’ internals—how big the core is, whether anything is molten, and so on. But it doesn’t capture the small details, like what the ground immediately below InSight looks like.

This week, researchers described how they’ve managed to find quiet periods on Mars that lets them image closer to the surface. The results, combined with some nearby surface features, reveal that InSight is likely above two large lava flows, separated by layers of sediment.

Be very quiet

Marsquakes aren’t useful for sorting out local features. If their seismic waves arrive from far enough away, then their behavior is mostly influenced by the materials they spent most of their time traveling through. If the marsquake happens nearby, then things are too energetic to make out the fine details caused by local features. So, in order to look at the local geology, you need to look at the background seismic noise that’s constantly being picked up by InSight.

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#geology, #insight, #mars, #planetary-science, #science, #seismology

New Mineral Discovered in Deep-Earth Diamond

The surprising find has never shown up in nature before, and reveals secrets about Earth’s mantle

— Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

#environment, #geology

Scientists extend and straighten iconic climate “hockey stick”

Image of the globe, with colors overlayered to represent temperatures.

Enlarge / The ice age climate (left) gave way to one that slowly warmed until industrial times. (credit: Matthew Osman)

The climate “hockey stick” refers to a reconstruction of temperatures over the past 1,000 years. The data shows flattish temperatures over the last millennium, like the handle of a Hockey stick, ending in a “blade” of rapidly rising temperatures since the industrial revolution. The idea first appeared in a paper by Michael Mann and Raymond Bradley of the University of Massachusetts and Malcolm Hughes of the University of Arizona. The work became famous after appearing in a UN climate report, after which it was the focus of climate denial, hacking, defamation, and disinformation, all of which was dramatized in a recent BBC TV drama called “The Trick.”

Today, in a paper published by Nature, scientists show that the “handle” of the “hockey stick” extends back 9,500 years, while its “blade” is taller—the last decade was 1.5° C hotter than the average temperature over the last 11,700 years. “Human-caused global temperature change during the last century was likely faster than any changes during the last 24,000 years,” said lead author Dr. Matt Osman of the University of Arizona.

An animation showing the warming that ended the last ice age.

An animation showing the warming that ended the last ice age. (credit: Matthew Osman)

Taking the temperature of times before thermometers

To measure temperatures at times long before the invention of thermometers, scientists must use indirect proxies. For the new study, scientists carefully vetted over 500 proxy records from oceans around the world; the data shows the fossilized remains of plankton and microbes in sediments where the age is known from radiocarbon dating.

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#climate-change, #climate-science, #geology, #global-warming, #paleoclimate, #science

When Kilauea Erupted, a New Volcanic Playbook Was Written

Scientists learned lessons from the 2018 outburst on the island of Hawaii that are changing how responders prepare for eruptions in other places.

#disasters-and-emergencies, #drones-pilotless-planes, #geology, #hawaii, #kilauea-volcano-hawaii, #mount-baker-wash, #mount-hood-ore, #mount-rainier-wash, #mount-shasta-volcano-calif, #mount-st-helens-wash, #pacific-northwestern-states-us, #social-media, #united-states, #united-states-geological-survey, #volcanoes, #western-states-us, #your-feed-science

Thousands of Tiny ‘Ice Needles’ May Explain Mysterious Stone Patterns on Earth … and Mars

These stunning patterns have an unlikely designer

— Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

#environment, #geology

Early Earth’s Slowing Rotation Helped Oxygen Build Up

The planet’s spin may have mediated critical atmospheric oxygen

— Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

#advances, #environment, #geology

Largest Known Undersea Volcanic Eruption Explains Odd Seismic Waves 

Researchers tie the event to “swarm quakes” off the French island of Mayotte

— Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

#environment, #geology

The World Wants Greenland’s Minerals, but Greenlanders Are Wary

The island has rare elements needed for electric cars and wind turbines. But protesters are blocking one project, signaling that mining companies must tread carefully.

#anglo-american-corp, #arctic-regions, #bezos-jeffrey-p, #gates-bill, #geology, #global-warming, #greenland, #indigenous-people, #mines-and-mining, #nuuk-greenland, #rare-earths, #uranium

Ancient Footprints Push Back Date of Human Arrival in the Americas

Human footprints found in New Mexico are about 23,000 years old, a study reported, suggesting that people may have arrived long before the Ice Age’s glaciers melted.

#archaeology-and-anthropology, #geology, #glaciers, #ice-age, #new-mexico, #north-america, #paleontology, #research, #science-journal, #white-sands-national-monument-nm, #your-feed-science

The Rock That Ended the Dinosaurs Was Much More Than a Dino Killer

In seeking the origin story of the Chicxulub impactor, scientists hope to also unlock secrets about the origin of life itself.

#asteroids, #dinosaurs, #endangered-and-extinct-species, #geology, #icarus-journal, #research, #solar-system, #space-and-astronomy

Unraveling the Mysteries Hidden in Vast Glacier Caves

A group of scientists and adventure athletes are venturing into icy labyrinths to study their relationships with glacial melting and climate change.

#alaska, #caves-and-caverns, #geography, #geology, #glaciers, #global-warming, #greenland, #ice, #mount-everest, #mountaineering, #nepal, #svalbard-and-jan-mayen-norway

NASA’s Perseverance Rover Stashes First Mars Rock Sample

The rock, sealed in a tube, is the first of many the robotic explorer will collect to one day send back to Earth for scientists to study.

#china, #geology, #mars-planet, #national-aeronautics-and-space-administration, #perseverance-mars-rover, #space-and-astronomy

NASA’s Mars Perseverance Rover Drills Rock Samples Successfully

After an earlier drilling attempt mysteriously failed, the robotic mission collected the first tube of samples that may one day help scientists understand the red planet.

#geology, #mars-planet, #national-aeronautics-and-space-administration, #perseverance-mars-rover, #research, #rock-and-stone, #space-and-astronomy

The True Haiti Earthquake Death Toll Is Much Worse Than Early Official Counts

A tool built by the U.S. Geological Survey suggests that the number of fatalities may range from 10,000 to 100,000 or more

— Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

#environment, #geology, #health, #natural-disasters

Ugly Diamonds Hold a Billion-Plus Years of Earth History

Tiny pockets of fluid inside imperfect diamonds show how Earth changed

— Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

#advances, #chemistry, #geology

Apollo 15 Anniversary: 50 Years Ago, NASA Put a Car on the Moon

The lunar rovers of Apollo 15, 16 and 17 parked American automotive culture on the lunar surface, and expanded the scientific range of the missions’ astronaut explorers.

#apollo-project, #automobiles, #boeing-company, #engineering-and-engineers, #general-motors, #geology, #moon, #national-aeronautics-and-space-administration, #space-and-astronomy

Red planet has a big core, complex crust

Image of a cutaway showing the martian interior, including its core.

Enlarge / Some seismic waves bounce off Mars’ core before reaching the InSight lander. (credit: Chris Bickel / Science)

We’ve learned a lot about our planet’s interior simply by tracking how the seismic energy released by earthquakes moves through or reflects off the different layers present beneath Earth’s surface. For over a Martian year, we’ve had a seismograph on Mars in the hope that it would help us to figure out the red planet’s interior.

But Mars is relatively quiet seismically, and we’ve only got a single seismograph instead of an entire network. Still, with records of a handful of significant marsquakes, we now have some sense of what Mars’ interior looks like. And a set of new studies indicates that it’s pretty weird, with a large, light core and an unexpectedly warm crust.

It’s complicated

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#geology, #insight, #mars, #marsquakes, #planetary-science, #science

Inside Mars, NASA’s InSight Mission Mapped Surprises Down to the Core

NASA’s InSight mission revealed Mars’s inner workings down to its core, highlighting great differences of the red planet from our blue world.

#earthquakes, #geology, #mars-planet, #mars-insight-spacecraft, #national-aeronautics-and-space-administration, #research, #science-journal, #space-and-astronomy

Peering Under Vermeers Without Peeling Off the Paint

High-tech scanning techniques used by geologists, planetary scientists, drug companies and the military are revealing secrets of how artists created their masterpieces.

#art, #cameras, #computers-and-the-internet, #geology, #getty-j-paul-museum, #laser-light-amplification-by-stimulated-emission-of-radiation, #light, #museums, #national-gallery-of-art, #research, #scanning-devices, #van-gogh-vincent, #van-rijn-rembrandt-harmenszoon, #vermeer-jan

Why Geology Is Our Destiny

A visit to the renovated hall of gems and minerals at the American Museum of Natural History reveals how the cosmos works in the real world.

#american-museum-of-natural-history, #geology, #jewels-and-jewelry, #mines-and-mining, #museums, #rock-and-stone, #space-and-astronomy, #your-feed-science

A Mysterious Crater’s Age May Add Clues to the Dinosaur Extinction

Boltysh crater in Ukraine formed around the same time as the Chicxulub event, raising questions about its role in this tumultuous era.

#asteroids, #dinosaurs, #earth, #geology, #research, #science-advances-journal, #ukraine, #your-feed-science

Venus Will Have a Fleet of Spacecraft as Europe Adds Orbiter Mission

The EnVision spacecraft will complement two NASA missions announced last week, ending the relative loneliness of a planet sometimes thought of as Earth’s twin.

#european-space-agency, #geology, #national-aeronautics-and-space-administration, #rocket-science-and-propulsion, #space-and-astronomy, #venus-planet, #volcanoes, #water

These Rocks Made a 1,000-Mile Trek. Did Dinosaurs Carry Them?

Researchers suggest a collection of prehistoric stones found in Wyoming journeyed from Wisconsin in the bellies of very large beasts.

#dinosaurs, #geology, #paleontology, #research, #rock-and-stone, #terra-nova-journal, #wisconsin, #wyoming, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

The Water on Mars Vanished. This Might Be Where It Went.

Mars once had rivers, lakes and seas. Although the planet is now desert dry, scientists say most of the water is still there, just locked up in rocks.

#geology, #mars-planet, #oceans-and-seas, #research, #science-journal, #space-and-astronomy, #water

New Zealand Faces Tsunami Threat After 8.1-Magnitude South Pacific Earthquake

The temblor was one of three powerful earthquakes that were recorded within eight hours off New Zealand, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.

#auckland-new-zealand, #coast-erosion, #earthquakes, #evacuations-and-evacuees, #geology, #hawaii, #ige-david, #new-zealand, #tidal-waves-and-tsunamis, #tonga, #united-states-geological-survey

NASA Will Listen for Thumps on Mars From Perseverance Rover’s Arrival

Parts of the new visitor will make large impacts that could be picked up by the InSight spacecraft’s seismometer.

#earthquakes, #geology, #mars-planet, #mars-insight-spacecraft, #national-aeronautics-and-space-administration, #perseverance-mars-rover, #space-and-astronomy

Meet America’s 63rd National Park

The New River Gorge in West Virginia got the federal government’s highest protection, thanks, in part, to the latest pandemic relief bill.

#capito-shelley-moore, #coal, #geology, #hunting-and-trapping, #land-use-policies, #mines-and-mining, #national-park-service, #national-parks-monuments-and-seashores, #parachutes-and-parachute-jumping, #parks-and-other-recreation-areas, #travel-and-vacations, #west-virginia

Whale Songs Could Reveal Deep Secrets Beneath the Oceans

The aquatic mammals’ sound waves penetrate into the rocks under the waves, which could assist seismologists’ surveys.

#earthquakes, #endangered-and-extinct-species, #geology, #noise, #oceans-and-seas, #pacific-ocean, #science-journal, #whales-and-whaling, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

Watch This Billion-Year Journey of Earth’s Tectonic Plates

A new simulation offers a different view of how the continents we live on drifted into their current configuration.

#earth, #earth-science-reviews, #geology, #oceans-and-seas, #research, #your-feed-science

The Cold Case of What’s Heating Up Yellowstone’s Steamboat Geyser

Scientists ruled out earthquakes and excessive snowfall as culprits in the series of outbursts from the world’s tallest active geyser.

#earthquakes, #geology, #geysers, #proceedings-of-the-national-academy-of-sciences, #rain, #research, #volcanoes, #water, #yellowstone-national-park, #your-feed-science

‘A Slap in the Face’: The Pandemic Disrupts Young Oil Careers

Students and recent graduates struggle to get hired as the oil industry cuts tens of thousands of jobs, some of which may never come back.

#alternative-and-renewable-energy, #careers-and-professions, #colleges-and-universities, #coronavirus-2019-ncov, #engineering-and-engineers, #geology, #labor-and-jobs, #layoffs-and-job-reductions, #natural-gas, #oil-petroleum-and-gasoline, #rice-university, #texas, #university-of-texas-at-austin

China Moon Mission: Watch Chang’e-5 Launch From the Lunar Surface

Chang’e-5 will soon attempt to dock in lunar orbit with another spacecraft, ahead of returning a cache of moon rocks and dirt to scientists on our planet.

#china, #geology, #moon, #research, #rocket-science-and-propulsion, #space-and-astronomy

Watch the Moon Landing of China’s Chang’e-5 Spacecraft

Within hours of arriving, it started drilling and scooping lunar rocks and soil to bring back to Earth.

#china, #geology, #moon, #research, #space-and-astronomy

Hawaii’s Fresh Water Leaks to the Ocean Through Underground Rivers

If the water could be pumped to the surface, it could help alleviate shortages on the island.

#aquifers, #geology, #hawaii-the-big-island, #islands, #oceans-and-seas, #research, #rivers, #science-advances-journal, #water, #your-feed-science

China to Collect Moon Rocks in a Mission Launching Soon

It has been four decades since lunar samples were brought to Earth, and the Chang’e-5 spacecraft’s bounty could have great scientific value.

#apollo-project, #china, #geology, #moon, #research, #rocket-science-and-propulsion, #solar-system, #space-and-astronomy

Burning Fossil Fuels Helped Drive Earth’s Most Massive Extinction

Massive volcanic eruptions ignited oil and coal deposits in Siberia in the events that led to the Permian-Triassic “Great Dying” event.

#carbon-dioxide, #coal, #endangered-and-extinct-species, #fossils, #geology, #geology-journal, #global-warming, #greenhouse-gas-emissions, #nature-geoscience-journal, #oceans-and-seas, #oil-petroleum-and-gasoline, #research, #volcanoes, #your-feed-science

Earthquake Rattles Parts of Massachusetts and Rhode Island

The quake, which had a preliminary magnitude of 4.0, was also felt in the Long Island Sound, the United States Geological Survey said.

#connecticut, #earthquakes, #geology, #long-island-sound, #massachusetts, #rhode-island

Grief and Geology Both Take Time in ‘The Book of Unconformities’

When the anthropologist Hugh Raffles lost two sisters within months, he looked to rocks and stones for a sense of perspective and stability.

#archaeology-and-anthropology, #books-and-literature, #geology, #raffles-hugh, #rock-and-stone, #the-book-of-unconformities-speculations-on-lost-time-book

Augmented reality could be the geology classroom’s killer app

Fancy a tabletop Meteor Crater, anyone?

Enlarge / Fancy a tabletop Meteor Crater, anyone? (credit: Scott K. Johnson)

One of the most important challenges in teaching geology is bringing the outside world into the classroom. During a pandemic, obviously, an inability to safely bring students into the classroom doesn’t make that any easier. Fortunately, digital tools can provide new ways to access the world beyond whichever room you find yourself in.

Geology is a very spatial science and can require a lot of 3-D visualization. Simple physical models (not to mention rocks) have long been used to aid teaching about things like faults or crystalline mineral structure. But these things can be surprisingly costly and occupy a surprising amount of storage space. This is an obvious place where technology can come in, serving up an endless variety of objects, simulations, and real-world data—if there’s an easy way for students to access it.

Augmented reality (AR) visualizations are increasingly capable of delivering on that promise. Ars talked to Martin Pratt about his work as part of a Washington University in St. Louis group that is developing apps for classes, both for specialized devices like Microsoft’s HoloLens and for the phones most students already have.

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#augmented-reality, #geology, #science, #science-education

Did Something Burp? It Was an Earthquake

Years of observations in central Italy show that more carbon dioxide percolates through Earth’s crust during periods of strong seismic activity.

#carbon-dioxide, #earthquakes, #geology, #greenhouse-gas-emissions, #italy, #research, #science-advances-journal, #your-feed-science