Ms. Young is the first Black woman to lead the Office of Management and Budget, which had been without permanent leadership for more than a year.
Ms. Young, the acting head of the Office of Management and Budget, would be the first Black woman to hold the post on a permanent basis.
The move comes after her nomination as budget director was pulled earlier this year over her frequent caustic remarks on social media.
A sprawling system meant to police trillions of dollars is showing signs of strain as watchdogs warn of waste, fraud and abuse.
The blueprint includes increases in funding to address climate change, along with beefing up education, health research and the Internal Revenue Service.
Over more than a decade at the House Appropriations Committee, Ms. Young gained credibility with members of both political parties.
The White House had insisted that it would stand by Neera Tanden as President Biden’s top budget official, but it became clear that she did not have the Senate votes to be confirmed.
The struggle to gain support for the longtime Democratic aide whose combative Twitter posts have drawn criticism reflects miscalculations by the White House and its chief of staff, Ron Klain.
Republicans have criticized her tweets, but Democrats say former President Donald J. Trump’s were much worse as they assail what they call a double standard.
Two Republican senators said they would not vote to confirm President Biden’s nominee to head the budget office, further dimming her chances to secure enough support in an evenly divided chamber.
Senator Joe Manchin III said he would oppose President Biden’s nominee to lead the Office of Management and Budget, a move that could scuttle her chances for her confirmation.
The government is already required to contract with U.S. companies when possible, but waivers have frustrated businesses for years.
“Right now, we just aren’t getting all the information that we need from the outgoing administration in key national security areas,” the president-elect said.
The swift and bitter pushback to President-elect Joe Biden’s choice to lead his budget office left some wondering if the incoming administration recognizes the depth of polarization it is confronting on Capitol Hill.
Jeffrey Zients, a candidate to lead the administration’s coronavirus response team, is arousing resistance from some progressive Democrats.
Lists of names of those the president-elect is said to be considering are flying across Washington, prompting lawmakers and interest groups to raise questions about some top contenders.
The move would give the president greater freedom to weed out what he sees as a “deep state” bureaucracy. The executive order, which could be rescinded if he is not re-elected, was condemned by civil service unions.
The F.D.A. proposed stricter guidelines for emergency approval of a coronavirus vaccine, but the White House chief of staff objected to provisions that would push approval past Election Day.
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