This Ancient Crab Had Unusually Huge Eyes

A study of fossils from Colombia suggests that a prehistoric shellfish hunted prey with remarkably sharp vision.

#colombia, #crabs, #eyes-and-eyesight, #fossils, #iscience-journal, #paleontology, #research, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

A Naturalist Stumbled on an Ichthyosaur Skeleton, the Largest in U.K. History

The fossilized remains of the marine reptile, often referred to as a “sea dragon” and believed to be 180 million years old, were discovered at a nature reserve.

#conservation-of-resources, #dinosaurs, #england, #fish-and-other-marine-life, #fossils, #great-britain, #museums, #paleontology, #reptiles, #rutland-england, #skeletons, #university-of-leicester, #university-of-manchester, #wildlife-sanctuaries-and-nature-reserves

Fossils of a Prehistoric Rainforest Hide in Australia’s Rusted Rocks

The find suggests overlooked rocks across the continent may contain more fossilized surprises.

#australia, #flowers-and-plants, #fossils, #insects, #paleontology, #research, #science-advances-journal, #spiders, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

Virtual 3D models of ammonite fossils show their muscles for first time

Stylized image of nautilus-style creature.

Enlarge (credit: Lesley Cherns et al.)

Researchers created a highly detailed 3D model of a 365-million-year-old ammonite fossil from the Jurassic period by combining advanced imaging techniques, revealing internal muscles that have never been previously observed, according to a paper published last month in the journal Geology. Another paper published last month in the journal Papers in Paleontology reported on the creation of 3D virtual models of the armored plates from fossilized skeletons of two new species of ancient worms, dating from 400 million years ago.

The ammonite fossil used in the Geology study was discovered in 1998 at the Claydon Pike pit site in Gloucestershire, England, which mostly comprises poorly cemented sands, sandstone, and limestone. Plenty of fragmented mollusk shells are scattered throughout the site, but this particular specimen was remarkably intact, showing no signs of prolonged exposure via scavenging, shell encrustation, or of being exhumed from elsewhere and redeposited. The fossil is currently housed at the National Museum Wales, Cardiff.

“When I found the fossil, I immediately knew it was something special,” said co-author Neville Hollingworth, public engagement manager at the Science and Technology Facilities Council. “The shell split in two and the body of the fossil fell out revealing what looked like soft tissues. It is wonderful to finally know what these are through the use of state-of-the-art imaging techniques.”

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#12-days-of-christmas, #3d-virtual-models, #biology, #fossils, #geology, #micro-ct-imaging, #neutron-imaging, #paleobiology, #paleontology, #science

Richard Leakey, Kenyan Fossil Hunter and Conservationist, Dies at 77

His discoveries of ancient human skulls and skeletons, including the famed “Turkana Boy,” helped cement Africa’s standing as the cradle of humanity.

#africa, #archaeology-and-anthropology, #deaths-obituaries, #endangered-and-extinct-species, #fossils, #kenya, #kenyatta-uhuru-muigai, #lake-turkana-kenya, #leakey-meave-g, #nairobi-kenya, #paleontology, #richard-leakey, #skull-body-part, #state-university-of-new-york-at-stony-brook, #turkana-basin-institute

An Ichthyosaur With a Grand Piano-Size Head and a Big Appetite

Scientists have described a giant new species of ichthyosaur that evolved its 55-foot-long body size only a few million years after the lizards returned to the seas.

#endangered-and-extinct-species, #fish-and-other-marine-life, #fossils, #nevada, #oceans-and-seas, #paleontology, #research, #science-journal, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

A fossil site reveals an ancient sinkhole and its enormous occupant

Rebuilding the lower jaw of the Gray mastodon.

Enlarge / Rebuilding the lower jaw of the Gray mastodon. (credit: ETSU Gray Fossil Site & Museum)

Something has been discovered in Tennessee—something that only exists in one museum. It’s something enormous, slightly puzzling, and possibly the first of its kind discovered. Five years after its excavation, it remains incomplete.

The mastodon skeleton slowly taking shape in Tennessee is no secret. Pictures and descriptions of its progress have been posted on social media from the beginning, and while those who are aware of it are intrigued, it hasn’t made many headlines. Yet.

Out of the gray

The Gray Fossil Site near Gray, Tennessee, was found by accident during road construction in 2000. Thanks to the efforts of local people and the state government who recognized the importance of the site, construction halted. A museum was erected several years later. Bits of bones and one shattered tusk were all that had been found when the site was preserved, but the area is proving to be voluminous in its fossil content.

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#fossils, #mastodon, #paleontology, #science

It’s a Christmas Sweater on a T. Rex: You Sure You Want to Call It Ugly?

The Natural History Museum in London outfitted its animatronic Tyrannosaurus rex in a colorful Christmas sweater.

#dinosaurs, #great-britain, #holidays-and-special-occasions, #instagram-inc, #london-england, #museums, #natural-history-museum-london, #paleontology

Prints Long Thought to Be Bear Tracks May Have Been Made by Human Ancestor

New research published in the journal Nature suggests that the prints, discovered in Tanzania in 1976, were left by an unidentified hominin, or early human ancestor, more than 3.6 million years ago.

#archaeology-and-anthropology, #australopithecines, #evolution-biology, #nature-journal, #paleontology, #research

This Dinosaur Found in Chile Had a Battle Ax for a Tail

While ankylosaurs are already known for their armor and club tails, this specimen from South America had a unique way of fighting predators.

#chile, #dinosaurs, #fossils, #nature-journal, #paleontology, #research, #tail, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

Why Was This Ancient Tusk 150 Miles From Land, 10,000 Feet Deep?

A discovery in the Pacific Ocean off California leads to “an ‘Indiana Jones’ mixed with ‘Jurassic Park’ moment.”

#fossils, #ice-age, #mammoths-animals, #monterey-bay-aquarium-research-institute, #oceans-and-seas, #pacific-ocean, #paleontology, #reproduction-biological, #research, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

New study debunks controversial 2015 fossil find: It’s not a four-limbed snake after all

In this artist's representation, <em>Tetrapodophis amplectus</em> glides through a tangle of branches from the conifer <em>Duartenia araripensis</em> that have fallen into the water, sharing this habitat with a water bug in the family <em>Belostomatidae</em> and small fish.

Enlarge / In this artist’s representation, Tetrapodophis amplectus glides through a tangle of branches from the conifer Duartenia araripensis that have fallen into the water, sharing this habitat with a water bug in the family Belostomatidae and small fish. (credit: Julius Csotonyi)

The discovery of a rare Cretaceous fossil that could have been a missing link in the evolution of modern snakes made headlines in 2015. It was dubbed Tetrapodophis amplectus (“four-footed serpent”) and proved controversial from the start, with some paleontologists questioning the interpretation that it was a protosnake. Now there is strong evidence that this latter view may be the correct one and that the specimen is more likely an early type of lizard, according to a a new paper published in the Journal of Systematic Paleontology.

Paleontologists have long suspected that snakes evolved from lizards at some point in the distant past, gradually losing their limbs. Thus, there should be an evolutionary predecessor with four limbs. This prediction was bolstered in 2006 with the discovery of a transitional snake-like fossil (Najash rionegrina) with two hind limbs dating back some 95 million years. There is also an ongoing debate about whether snakes originated in a marine or terrestrial environment, and the 2006 fossil supported the latter hypothesis.

Then, in 2015, the University of Portsmouth’s David Martill and co-author Nicholas Longrich of the University of Bath published a description of a four-legged fossil they claimed was the first known example of a four-legged protosnake with forelimbs and hindlimbs in the fossil record. Martill had stumbled across the fossil at the Museum Solnhofen in Germany, part of a larger exhibition of fossils from the Cretaceous Period.

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#missing-link, #paleobiology, #paleontology, #science

Antarctica Was Once a Land of Fire and Not Ice

Charcoal recovered from a dig near the southern continent shows that the region wasn’t spared from the era scientists call a “super fire world.”

#antarctic-regions, #charcoal, #paleontology, #polar-research-journal, #research, #wildfires, #your-feed-science

As Earth Warms, Human History Is Melting Away

Climate change is revealing long-frozen artifacts and animals to archaeologists. But the window for study is slender and shrinking.

#alaska, #alps-mountains, #archaeology-and-anthropology, #arctic-regions, #audio-neutral-immersive, #audio-neutral-informative, #austria, #chile, #endangered-and-extinct-species, #europe, #glaciers, #global-warming, #ice, #indigenous-people, #mammoths-animals, #mongolia, #norway, #paleontology, #siberia, #university-of-aberdeen, #yakutia-russia, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

Fossilized Poop Shows How Ancient Dogs Adapted to People

Microbe DNA trapped in 3,500-year-old fossils shows canine adaptation to agricultural diets

— Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

#advances, #biology, #paleontology

How Did Elephants and Walruses Get Their Tusks? It’s a Long Story.

A new study reveals how some mammals evolved nature’s most impressive chompers (which are not always used for chomping).

#animals, #elephants, #endangered-and-extinct-species, #evolution-biology, #mammals, #paleontology, #pangaea, #proceedings-of-the-royal-society-b-journal, #teeth-and-dentistry

Dinosaurs May Have Been Socializing Nearly 200 Million Years Ago

A trove of fossilized eggs and skeletons in Argentina revealed that some dinosaurs likely traveled in herds and socialized by age.

#animal-behavior, #animals, #argentina, #dinosaurs, #endangered-and-extinct-species, #fossils, #paleontology, #research, #scientific-reports-journal, #south-america

The Triassic’s Fearsome Dinosaur Was a Timid Plant Eater

A new analysis of fossilized footprints corrects what earlier scientists mistook for a very early carnivore in the dinosaur era.

#australia, #brisbane-australia, #dinosaurs, #historical-biology-journal, #paleontology, #research, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

Trapped in amber: Fossilized dinosaur-era crab bridges evolutionary gap

Trapped in amber: Fossilized dinosaur-era crab bridges evolutionary gap

Enlarge

Once upon a time, during the Cretaceous period, a tiny crab wandered out of the water onto land and somehow got trapped in amber, which preserved it for 100 million years. At least that’s what a team of scientists hypothesize might have happened in a new paper announcing their discovery of the oldest known modern-looking crab yet found in the fossil record. The paper was published in the journal Science Advances.

This new type of “true crab” (aka a brachyuran) measures just five millimeters in leg span and has been dubbed Cretapsara athanata. The name is meant to honor the period in which the crab lived and Apsara, a South and Southeast Asian spirit of the clouds and waters. “Athanatos” means “immortal,” a sly reference to the fossilized crab being frozen in time.

It’s rare to find nonmarine crab fossils from this era trapped in amber; most such amber fossils are those of insects. And the previously discovered crabby fossils are incomplete, usually consisting of pieces of claws. This latest find is so complete that it doesn’t seem to be missing even a single hair. The find is of particular interest because it pushes back the time frame for when nonmarine crabs crawled onto land by 25 to 50 million years—consistent with long-standing theories on the genetic history of crabs—and offers new insight into the so-called Cretaceous Crab Revolution, when crabs diversified worldwide.

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#animals, #crabs, #cretaceous, #evolution, #fossils, #micro-ct-scanning, #paleontology, #science, #transitional-fossils

Ancient-DNA Researchers Set Ethical Guidelines for Their Work

New, international standards for handling ancient genetic material draw support from many scientists, criticism from others.

#archaeology-and-anthropology, #ethics-and-official-misconduct, #genetics-and-heredity, #indigenous-people, #paleontology, #reich-david-e-1974, #research, #your-feed-science

Ancient Footprints Push Back Date of Human Arrival in the Americas

Human footprints found in New Mexico are about 23,000 years old, a study reported, suggesting that people may have arrived long before the Ice Age’s glaciers melted.

#archaeology-and-anthropology, #geology, #glaciers, #ice-age, #new-mexico, #north-america, #paleontology, #research, #science-journal, #white-sands-national-monument-nm, #your-feed-science

Footprint Discovery Hints at Humans in the Americas More Than 20,000 Years Ago

Seeds found in fossilized tracks fuel new speculation about when—and how—people arrived

— Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

#archaeology, #biology, #paleontology, #social-sciences

Some Dinosaurs May Have Wagged their Tails to Help Them Run

This may be for the same reason humans swing their arms when walking and running.

— Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

#biology, #dinosaurs, #paleontology

Some Dinosaurs May Have Wagged Their Tail to Help Them Run

This may be for the same reason humans swing their arms when walking and running

— Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

#biology, #dinosaurs, #paleontology

Kids’ Fossilized Handprints May Be Some of the World’s Oldest Art

Ice Age impressions in limestone show that human ancestors inhabited the area

— Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

#biology, #evolution, #paleontology

A New Company With a Wild Mission: Bring Back the Woolly Mammoth

With $15 million in private funding, Colossal aims to bring thousands of woolly mammoths back to Siberia. Some scientists are deeply skeptical that will happen.

#church-george-m, #cloning, #elephants, #endangered-and-extinct-species, #genetic-engineering, #genetics-and-heredity, #mammoths-animals, #paleontology, #your-feed-science

Mammoth Tusk Analysis Reveals Epic Lifetime Journey around Alaska

Researchers find the mammoth walked far enough to circle the globe twice

— Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

#animals, #biology, #paleontology

‘Spaceship-Shaped’ Fossil Reveals Hungry Predator of Ancient Oceans

Titanokorys gainesi, turned up in the Canadian Rockies, was among the largest known predators 500 million years ago.

#british-columbia-canada, #burgess-shale-canada, #endangered-and-extinct-species, #fish-and-other-marine-life, #fossils, #oceans-and-seas, #paleontology, #research, #royal-society-open-science-journal, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

Fossils Seized in Police Raid Demystify a Prehistoric Flying Reptile

Among the 3,000 fossils seized at a Brazilian port in 2013 was an almost complete skeleton from the pterosaur species Tupandactylus navigans, preserved in six limestone slabs.

#brazil, #dinosaurs, #fossils, #paleontology, #plos-one-journal, #pterosaurs, #research, #smuggling

A Shifting Climate Gave Humans Many Opportunities to Leave Africa

A new paleoclimate model finds many favorable windows when Homo sapiens might have survived a migration out of Africa.

#archaeology-and-anthropology, #cambridge-university, #manica-andrea, #nature-communications-journal, #paleontology, #your-feed-science

Was The Tyrannosaurus Rex a Picky Eater?

The jaw of the Tyrannosaurus Rex had sensitive nerves that may have allowed it to differentiate between parts of its prey, a new study found.

#dinosaurs, #fossils, #historical-biology-journal, #japan, #jaw-body-part, #montana, #paleontology, #research, #tyrannasaurus-rex

This Brain Remained Intact in a 310 Million-Year-Old Fossil

The discovery suggested that horseshoe crab brains haven’t changed much and that there are more ways for soft tissues to be preserved in the fossil record.

#brain, #endangered-and-extinct-species, #fish-and-other-marine-life, #fossils, #geology-journal, #horseshoe-crabs, #illinois, #paleontology, #yale-peabody-museum-of-natural-history, #your-feed-science

The Incredible, Reanimated 24,000-Year-Old Rotifer

The last time this tiny wheel animalcule was moving around, woolly mammoths roamed the earth.

— Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

#biology, #paleontology

Discovery of ‘Dragon Man’ Skull in China May Add Species to Human Family Tree

A laborer discovered the fossil and hid it in a well for 85 years. Scientists say it could help sort out the human family tree and how our species emerged.

#china, #denisova-hominid, #endangered-and-extinct-species, #evolution-biology, #fossils, #harbin-china, #neanderthal-man, #paleontology, #research, #skull-body-part, #the-innovation

The human family tree keeps getting more complicated

Image of pieces of an ancient skull.

Enlarge (credit: Avi Levin and Ilan Theiler, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University)

It’s probably long past time to stop thinking of humanity’s nearest relatives as forming a family tree. Our close relatives like the Neanderthals and Denisovans clearly interbred both with us and each other. There are also indications that an older African lineage contributed to our ancestry; Neanderthals seem to have picked up some DNA from an even older lineage as well. All of that makes humanity’s ancestry look more like a river delta, with multiple channels separating and reuniting over time.

In today’s issue of Science, a group of researchers argue that they have found yet another channel that may sit at a key point in our past. A small collection of bones from a site in the Mideast seems to have a mix of archaic and Neanderthal-like features, suggesting that the bones may be related to the source of archaic DNA in the Neanderthal lineage. But the bones come from well after the Neanderthal lineage was distinct, and the artifacts found with them suggest extensive interactions with other human lineages.

A bit of a mix

The site is in Israel and is called Nesher Ramla. Extensive dating of materials found there suggests that the newly described bones date from roughly 120,000 to 140,000 years ago. That was, to say the least, a complicated time in our species’ history. Neanderthals and Denisovans had already inhabited Eurasia, which they shared with other archaic human lineages, along with Homo erectus. Modern humans were already present in Africa, which they shared with various archaic lineages, many of which had some modern features. And there is evidence that a lot of these groups were crossing paths in the Mideast.

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#biology, #evolution, #human-evolution, #neanderthals, #paleontology, #science

Trace fossils, the most inconspicuous bite-sized window into ancient worlds

Image of a rock with oval outlines embedded in it.

Enlarge / It may not look like much, but you can actually learn a lot from a fossilized leaf that preserves insect damage. (credit: Donovan et. al.)

He knew what it was as soon as he saw it: the signature sign of a bird landing. He’d seen hundreds of such tracks along the Georgia coast. He’d photographed them, measured them, and drawn them. The difference here? This landing track was approximately 105 million years old.

Dr. Anthony Martin, a popular professor at Emory University, recognized that landing track in Australia in the early 2000s when he passed by a fossil slab in a museum. “Because my eyes had been trained for so long from the Georgia coast seeing those kinds of patterns, that’s how I noticed them,” he said. “Because it literally was out of the corner of my eye. I was walking by the slab, I glanced at it, and then these three-toed impressions popped out at me.”

Impressions of toes may seem to be pretty dull compared to a fully reconstructed skeleton. But many of us yearn for a window into ancient worlds, to actually see how long-extinct creatures looked, lived, and behaved. Paleontology lets us crack open that window; using fossilized remains, scientists glean information about growth rates, diet, diseases, and where species roamed. But there’s a lesser-known branch of paleontology that fully opens the window by exploring what the extinct animals actually did.

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#biology, #dinosaurs, #features, #fossils, #giant-sloths, #mammoths, #paleontology, #science

New Dinosaur Species Is Australia’s Largest, Researchers Say

Australotitan cooperensis, a long-necked herbivore from the Cretaceous period, is estimated to have weighed 70 tons, measured two stories tall and extended the length of a basketball court.

#australia, #dinosaurs, #museums, #paleontology, #queensland-australia

Sharks Nearly Went Extinct 19 Million Years Ago From Mystery Event

Analysis of the fossil record shows a mysterious mass extinction that decimated the diversity of sharks in the world’s oceans, and they’ve never fully recovered.

#endangered-and-extinct-species, #fossils, #oceans-and-seas, #paleontology, #research, #science-journal, #sharks, #your-feed-science

Scientists Find a Fossilized Ancestor of ‘Dinosaur Food’

This ancient plant might be even more ancient than paleobotanists once believed.

#brazil, #flowers-and-plants, #fossils, #paleontology, #research, #trees-and-shrubs

These Neanderthals Weren’t Cannibals, So Who Ate Them? Stone Age Hyenas.

An archaeological excavation south of Rome uncovered fossil remains of nine Neanderthals, along with the bones of hyenas, elephants and rhinoceroses.

#archaeology-and-anthropology, #caves-and-caverns, #fossils, #hyenas, #italy, #neanderthal-man, #paleontology, #research, #skull-body-part

Horse Fossil, Possibly From the Ice Age, Is Found in a Las Vegas Backyard

Workers found the bones, which could be up to 14,000 years old, during the construction of a pool.

#excavation, #fossils, #horses, #ice-age, #joshua-bonde, #las-vegas-nev, #matthew-perkins, #paleontology

Baby Mammoths Were Meals for These Saber-Tooth Cats

Fossils from a Texas site suggest that the predatory felines not only snatched mammoths from their herds, but dragged the remains back to their cave.

#cats, #caves-and-caverns, #current-biology-journal, #endangered-and-extinct-species, #fossils, #mammoths-animals, #paleontology, #san-antonio-tex, #teeth-and-dentistry, #your-feed-science

How Many Tyrannosaurus Rexes Ever Lived on Earth? Here’s a New Clue.

An estimation of the iconic predator’s total population can teach us things about dinosaurs that fossils cannot.

#dinosaurs, #endangered-and-extinct-species, #north-america, #paleontology, #research, #science-journal, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

How the Largest Animals That Could Ever Fly Supported Giraffe-Like Necks

These pterosaurs had wingspans as long as 33 feet, and scans of fossilized remains reveal a surprise in their anatomy.

#dinosaurs, #fossils, #iscience-journal, #morocco, #neck, #paleontology, #pterosaurs, #research, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

These Rocks Made a 1,000-Mile Trek. Did Dinosaurs Carry Them?

Researchers suggest a collection of prehistoric stones found in Wyoming journeyed from Wisconsin in the bellies of very large beasts.

#dinosaurs, #geology, #paleontology, #research, #rock-and-stone, #terra-nova-journal, #wisconsin, #wyoming, #your-feed-animals, #your-feed-science

Prior to the Chicxulub impact, rainforests looked very different

Image of a tropical forest.

Enlarge (credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Colombia’s rainforest looked very different 66 million years ago. At present, the humid and biodiverse ecosystem is jam-packed with plants and is covered in a thick, light-blocking canopy of leaves and branches. Notably, there are no dinosaurs. But prior to the dinosaurs going away with the Chicxulub impact, signaling the end of the Cretaceous Period, things looked very different. The area’s plant coverage was relatively sparse, and a bevvy of conifers called it home.

Using the fossilized remains of plants, a team of researchers studied the past of the rainforest and how the asteroid gave rise to the rainforests of today. The study, published in Science on April 1, was led by scientists at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in Panama and supported by scientists at the Negaunee Institute for Plant Conservation Science and Action at the Chicago Botanic Garden.

“Forests disappeared because of the ecological catastrophe… and then, the returning vegetation was mostly dominated by flowering plants,” said Mónica Carvalho, first author and joint postdoctoral fellow at STRI and at the Universidad del Rosario in Colombia, in an interview with Ars.

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#asteroid-impact, #biology, #dinosaurs, #ecology, #paleontology, #science

Decolonizing the Hunt for Dinosaurs and Other Fossils

Younger paleontologists are working to overcome some historical legacies of their discipline and change how people learn about natural history.

#colonization, #dinosaurs, #discrimination, #fish-and-other-marine-life, #fossils, #museums, #paleontology, #race-and-ethnicity, #research, #science-and-technology, #tunisia, #your-feed-science

Uprooting Colonialism From the Fossil-Finding Field

Younger paleontologists are working to overcome some historical legacies of their discipline and change how people learn about natural history.

#colonization, #dinosaurs, #discrimination, #fish-and-other-marine-life, #fossils, #museums, #paleontology, #race-and-ethnicity, #research, #science-and-technology, #tunisia, #your-feed-science

Neanderthals Listened to the World Much Like Us

A reconstructed Neanderthal ear adds a new piece to the puzzle of whether the early humans could speak.

#archaeology-and-anthropology, #ears-and-hearing, #fossils, #language-and-languages, #nature-ecologyevolution-journal, #neanderthal-man, #paleontology, #quam-rolf-m, #research, #voice-and-speech, #your-feed-science

5 Picture Books About the Wonders of Science

Fossils, flowers, galaxies and a rare “lefty” snail.

#biology-and-biochemistry, #books-and-literature, #chemistry, #children-and-childhood, #el-fathi-mickael, #flowers-and-plants, #fossils, #fossils-from-lost-worlds-book, #genetics-and-heredity, #hahn-daniel, #hubble-space-telescope, #hubble-edwin, #ignotofsky-rachel, #laverdunt-damien, #marcero-deborah, #marinov-isabelle, #medicine-and-health, #nobel-prizes, #paleontology, #physics, #popova-maria, #rajcak-helene, #science-and-me-book, #science-and-technology, #snails, #space-and-astronomy, #stars-and-galaxies, #the-boy-whose-head-was-filled-with-stars-a-life-of-edwin-hubble-book, #the-snail-with-the-right-heart-a-true-story-book, #whats-inside-a-flower-and-other-questions-about-sciencenature-book, #winter-ali, #zhu-ping-illustrator