C.D.C. Dismisses Airborne Transmission of Monkeypox. Some Experts Disagree.

The virus “is not known to linger in the air,” agency officials said. But the research is far from definitive.

#centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention, #disease-rates, #masks, #monkeypox, #smallpox, #united-states, #world-health-organization, #your-feed-science

Monkeypox Can Be Airborne, Too

An abrupt change in C.D.C. guidance underscores a little-known phenomenon: On occasion, monkeypox can be transmitted through aerosols, similar to the coronavirus.

#centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention, #masks, #monkeypox, #smallpox, #your-feed-science

21 Americans Infected With Monkeypox, C.D.C. Reports

As the number of cases outside Africa approaches 800, governments are scrambling for a limited pool of vaccines and treatments with unclear effectiveness.

#bavarian-nordic-as, #centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention, #chimerix-inc, #drugs-pharmaceuticals, #emergent-biosolutions-inc, #great-britain, #monkeypox, #nigeria, #smallpox, #stockpiling, #united-states, #vaccination-and-immunization, #your-feed-science

Experts warn of continued monkeypox spread as hundreds of cases found worldwide

A negative stain electron micrograph of a monkeypox virus virion in human vesicular fluid.

Enlarge / A negative stain electron micrograph of a monkeypox virus virion in human vesicular fluid. (credit: Getty | BSIP)

The multinational monkeypox outbreak continues to pose a low risk to the general public, and, for now, it seems unlikely that cases will mushroom into a global pandemic, according to the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

But, experts are concerned that the virus could continue to spread and that transmission may escape containment without an urgent and thorough public health response.

The outbreak tally continues to increase rapidly, with hundreds of cases now reported across at least 23 countries. In an update released Sunday, May 29, WHO reported 257 confirmed cases and around 120 suspected cases from 23 countries. Those figures are already significantly outdated. As of Monday, Our World in Data reported 555 confirmed cases worldwide. On Tuesday, the United Kingdom reported 190 cases, up from the 106 that WHO reported Sunday. Likewise, the US total has increased to 15 cases, up from 10 reported last week.

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#biology, #cdc, #infectious-disease, #medicine, #monkeypox, #outbreak, #public-health, #science, #smallpox, #who

Who Is Protected Against Monkeypox?

Older people who received smallpox vaccinations may yet have some immunity, researchers say. Healthy children and adults generally do not become severely ill.

#antibodies, #europe, #monkeypox, #smallpox, #united-states, #vaccination-and-immunization, #your-feed-science

As Monkeypox Cases Rise, Nations Are Urged to Examine Vaccine Stores

The United States has stockpiled millions of doses of two smallpox vaccines, also effective against monkeypox. But the outbreaks so far are clustered in other countries.

#canary-islands, #centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention, #disease-rates, #epidemics, #europe, #european-center-for-disease-prevention-and-control, #homosexuality-and-bisexuality, #monkeypox, #smallpox, #spain, #stockpiling, #united-states, #vaccination-and-immunization, #your-feed-science

Why the Monkeypox Virus Is Not Like Covid-19

This viral illness is not like Covid, but there is cause for concern. Here’s how experts are thinking about it now.

#content-type-service, #coronavirus-2019-ncov, #coronavirus-risks-and-safety-concerns, #disease-rates, #monkeypox, #sexually-transmitted-diseases, #smallpox, #vaccination-and-immunization, #viruses

Monkeypox outbreak erupts; US, UK, Spain, Portugal, and more report cases

A 2003 photo of the arms and legs of a 4-year-old girl infected with monkeypox in Liberia.

Enlarge / A 2003 photo of the arms and legs of a 4-year-old girl infected with monkeypox in Liberia. (credit: Getty | BSIP)

A growing outbreak of monkeypox cases has spread across several countries, including the US, suggesting that the animal-transmitted disease that occurs in forested areas of Central and West Africa has been quietly spreading undetected.

So far, the US has reported one case in a Massachusetts man who had recently traveled to Canada, which, as of Thursday, reported 17 suspected cases in Montreal. The United Kingdom has identified nine cases, one of which is connected to recent travel to Nigeria, where monkeypox is endemic. But the other cases appear to have been infected within the UK and are all not linked to the travel-related case by contact or timing. Portugal is investigating more than 20 cases, Spain is reportedly investigating 23 cases, and Italy and Sweden have each reported at least one case.

Disease origins

Monkeypox is a relative of smallpox and produces similar symptoms, but it causes a milder disease than that of the eradicated virus. There are two clades of monkeypox: the West African clade and the Congo Basin clade. The West African clade, which is what has been detected in the UK, is the milder of the two. It is usually a self-limiting infection, though it can cause severe disease in some cases. The case fatality rate has been estimated at about 1 percent. The Congo Basin clade, meanwhile, has an estimated fatality rate of as high as 10 percent. For both clades, children are among those at high risk of severe disease, and infection can be particularly dangerous during pregnancy, causing complications, congenital conditions, and stillbirth.

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#cdc, #infectious-disease, #lesions, #men-who-have-sex-with-men, #monkeypox, #portugal, #public-health, #science, #smallpox, #spain, #transmission, #uk, #virus, #who

Ben Franklin’s Vaccine Lessons

And the overnight news from Ukraine.

#coronavirus-2019-ncov, #disease-rates, #franklin-benjamin, #internal-storyline-no, #smallpox, #vaccination-and-immunization

Beneath a Covid Vaccine Debacle, 30 Years of Government Culpability

Washington has rejected plans to revamp vaccine preparedness for decades and repeatedly paid a price. The Biden administration is at a similar crossroads.

#anthrax, #astrazeneca-plc, #biden-joseph-r-jr, #biological-and-chemical-warfare, #biomedical-advanced-research-and-development-authority, #botulism, #coronavirus-2019-ncov, #defense-department, #drugs-pharmaceuticals, #el-hibri-fuad, #emergent-biosolutions-inc, #epidemics, #food-and-drug-administration, #gaithersburg-md, #government-contracts-and-procurement, #johnsonjohnson, #moderna-inc, #politics-and-government, #public-private-sector-cooperation, #smallpox, #stockpiling, #united-states, #vaccination-and-immunization

That time Catherine the Great championed smallpox vaccinations

Portrait of Catherine the Great. Her 1787 letter to Count Piotr Aleksandrovich Rumiantsev—now up for auction—called for a national vaccination campaign against smallpox.

Enlarge / Portrait of Catherine the Great. Her 1787 letter to Count Piotr Aleksandrovich Rumiantsev—now up for auction—called for a national vaccination campaign against smallpox. (credit: Public domain)

During her long reign, Catherine the Great‘s leadership transformed Russia into a powerhouse of Europe. She was also a leader in public health policy, championing a nation-wide vaccination campaign against smallpox at a time when many viewed the practice with distrust. A letter by the Empress outlining her inoculation strategy is up for auction by MacDougall’s in London. Included in the sale is a portrait of the monarch as the “Lawgiver in the Temple of Justice,” painted by Dmitri Levitsky, who was a favorite of the Russian court in the 1770s and 1780s. The two items are expected to sell for as much as $1.6 million.

As we’ve reported previously, the World Health Organization declared smallpox to be an eradicated disease in 1979, and many people don’t remember just how devastating it could be. It began with a high fever and severe vomiting, followed by a skin rash. The victim would next develop sores, which eventually scabbed over and fell off, scarring the skin. About three in ten of those infected died, and the survivors were typically badly scarred for life, sometimes even blinded or permanently disabled.

The Chinese were inoculating people against smallpox as early as the 1500s. European physicians in the early 18th century relied upon variolation (the use of smallpox to induce immunity) to control the spread of smallpox, in which scrapings from smallpox pustules were scratched into a person’s arm or inhaled through the nose. While those who received the treatment did go on to develop common smallpox symptoms like fever and rash, the death toll was significantly lower.

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#catherine-the-great, #gaming-culture, #history, #history-of-science, #medicine, #science, #smallpox, #smallpox-vaccine, #vaccinatation

Catherine the Great Letter Up for Auction Shows Her Support for Inoculations

In a letter to be sold at auction this week, the Russian empress called for widespread access to a precursor of the smallpox vaccine.

#art, #auctions, #catherine-ii-empress-of-russia, #russia, #smallpox, #st-petersburg-russia, #vaccination-and-immunization

C.D.C. Says ‘Smallpox’ Vials Found in Lab Did Not Contain Disease-Causing Virus

In a new statement, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said the vials found in a Pennsylvania lab contained vaccinia, the virus used in the smallpox vaccine.

#centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention, #laboratories-and-scientific-equipment, #merckcompany-inc, #pennsylvania, #smallpox

Vaccination Mandates Are an American Tradition. So Is the Backlash.

The roots of U.S. vaccine mandates predate both the U.S. and vaccines.

#biden-joseph-r-jr, #civil-rights-and-liberties, #coronavirus-2019-ncov, #epidemics, #polls-and-public-opinion, #smallpox, #vaccination-and-immunization

What the Smallpox Vaccine Can Teach Us About the Covid Vaccine

Vaccination campaigns have always, eventually, succeeded.

#coronavirus-2019-ncov, #epidemics, #rumors-and-misinformation, #smallpox, #vaccination-and-immunization

How the Human Life Span Doubled in 100 Years

Between 1920 and 2020, the average human life span doubled. How did we do it? Science mattered — but so did activism.

#antibiotics, #cholera, #coronavirus-risks-and-safety-concerns, #disease-rates, #epidemics, #fleming-alexander, #food-and-drug-administration, #infant-mortality, #influenza-epidemic-1918-19, #longevity, #milk, #montagu-mary-wortley, #pasteur-louis, #population, #salk-jonas-e, #smallpox, #statistics, #vaccination-and-immunization

Edward Jenner Pioneered Vaccination. Will His Museum Survive a Pandemic?

The site where Dr. Jenner first inoculated people against smallpox has struggled in the coronavirus lockdowns, one of hundreds of museums in Britain teetering amid the closures.

#coronavirus-2019-ncov, #england, #great-britain, #historic-buildings-and-sites, #jenner-edward, #museums, #quarantine-life-and-culture, #smallpox, #vaccination-and-immunization

A Kid-Friendly Graphic Novel History of Vaccines

Don Brown’s “A Shot in the Arm!” — Book 3 in his Big Ideas That Changed the World series — couldn’t be more timely.

#brown-don-graphic-novel-author, #children-and-childhood, #coronavirus-2019-ncov, #epidemics, #graphic-novels, #montagu-mary-wortley, #shot-in-the-arm-book, #smallpox, #vaccination-and-immunization

The Secret Life of a Coronavirus

An oily, 100-nanometer-wide bubble of genes has killed more than two million people and reshaped the world. Scientists don’t quite know what to make of it.

#almeida-june-1930-2007, #animals, #bats, #biodiversity, #dna-deoxyribonucleic-acid, #genetics-and-heredity, #microbiology, #quarantine-life-and-culture, #rna-ribonucleic-acid, #science-and-technology, #smallpox, #van-leeuwenhoek-antonie-1632-1723, #viruses

Ancient Rome Has an Urgent Warning for Us

The era of the Antonine Plague offers a reminder of what a powerful force nature has been throughout human history.

#coronavirus-2019-ncov, #epidemics, #plague, #roman-civilization, #rome-italy, #smallpox

A Look at Past Vaccine Drives: Smallpox, Polio and the Swine Flu

As governments begin rolling out the biggest vaccine drives in history, a look at mass vaccination campaigns of the past offers insight into mistakes.

#coronavirus-2019-ncov, #epidemics, #influenza, #smallpox, #swine-influenza, #vaccination-and-immunization

An Appreciation for Vaccines, and How Far They Have Come

The DTP vaccine teaches us about how brilliant vaccine technology can be, but also how it can be studied and improved over time.

#children-and-childhood, #coronavirus-2019-ncov, #diphtheria, #poliomyelitis, #smallpox, #tetanus, #vaccination-and-immunization, #whooping-cough

Yes, Parking in New York Has Gotten Worse

A convenient spot was never easy to find, but an increase in car ownership and a decrease in available spaces have some drivers desperate.

#coronavirus-2019-ncov, #new-york-city, #odwyer-william, #parking, #smallpox, #vaccination-and-immunization

How New York City Vaccinated 6 Million People in Less Than a Month

When a single case of smallpox arrived in Manhattan in 1947, a severe outbreak was possible. A decisive civil servant made a bold decision.

#advertising-council, #content-type-personal-profile, #epidemics, #new-york-city, #odwyer-william, #smallpox, #vaccination-and-immunization, #weinstein-israel

Vaccines Are Coming, but Pandemic Experts Expect a ‘Horrible’ Winter

With vaccines and a new administration, the pandemic will be tamed. But experts say the coming months “are going to be just horrible.”

#astrazeneca-plc, #biden-joseph-r-jr, #carlson-tucker, #centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention, #christie-christopher-j, #clinical-trials, #coronavirus-2019-ncov, #eli-lilly-and-company, #emanuel-ezekiel-j, #food-and-drug-administration, #frist-bill, #gerberding-julie-l, #governors-us, #hannity-sean, #james-lebron, #larson-heidi, #lipkin-w-ian, #lipsitch-marc, #markel-howard, #medicine-and-health, #moderna-inc, #noem-kristi, #offit-paul-a, #oz-mehmet-c, #presidential-election-of-2020, #presidential-transition-us, #regeneron-pharmaceuticals-inc, #schaffner-william, #slaoui-moncef-m, #smallpox, #supreme-court-us, #trump-donald-j, #united-states, #vaccination-and-immunization

In Terms of Child Mortality, It’s a Good Time for Public Health

Despite the crises of 2020, parents can realistically expect that children born today will outlive them. That wasn’t always the case.

#antibiotics, #babies-and-infants, #children-and-childhood, #cholera, #epidemics, #infant-mortality, #parenting, #smallpox, #vaccination-and-immunization

What’s Mightier Than the Coronavirus? A Freshly Killed Chicken

How Hong Kong’s food culture has adapted to epidemic after epidemic, fending off disease while saving its favorite dishes, and its soul.

#avian-influenza, #beijing-china, #bubonic-plague, #chickens, #china, #chopsticks, #coronavirus-2019-ncov, #epidemics, #food, #great-britain, #guangdong-province-china, #hong-kong, #hygiene-and-cleanliness, #influenza, #plague, #quarantine-life-and-culture, #rabies, #restaurants, #sars-severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome, #smallpox, #tables, #wildlife-trade-and-poaching, #wuhan-china

Viking Age Smallpox Complicates Story of Viral Evolution

An extinct version of the smallpox virus dating to 1,400 years ago prompts speculation about viruses becoming more lethal over time.

#cambridge-university, #coronavirus-2019-ncov, #dna-deoxyribonucleic-acid, #evolution-biology, #genetics-and-heredity, #immune-system, #science-journal, #smallpox, #viruses, #your-feed-science

How Pandemics End

An infectious outbreak can conclude in more ways than one, historians say. But for whom does it end, and who gets to decide?

#antibiotics, #bubonic-plague, #coronavirus-2019-ncov, #deaths-fatalities, #ebola-virus, #epidemics, #fleas, #influenza, #influenza-epidemic-1918-19, #microbiology, #plague, #rats, #smallpox, #vaccination-and-immunization, #your-feed-health, #your-feed-science

Pandemics of the Past

Two books remind us of other times when humankind suffered from mass contagions.

#a-distant-mirror-the-calamitous-14th-century-book, #books-and-literature, #coss-stephen-f-1957, #epidemics, #plague, #smallpox, #the-fever-of-1721-the-epidemic-that-revolutionized-medicine-and-american-politics-book, #tuchman-barbara-w

The Coronavirus Vaccine May Have a Shortcut: Infecting Volunteers

Should we take it?

#clinical-trials, #coronavirus-2019-ncov, #debatable, #ethics-personal, #oxford-university, #respiratory-diseases, #smallpox, #viruses

Coronavirus Is Forcing Medical Research to Speed Up

What does it mean for science — and public health — that scientific journals are now publishing research at warp speed?

#academic-and-scientific-journals, #centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention, #coronavirus-2019-ncov, #emerging-infectious-diseases-journal, #masks, #research, #science-and-technology, #smallpox